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Gramatica engleza . Gramatica limbii engleze

Articolul nehotarat (The Indefinite Article)
Se aseaza inaintea substantivului.
Are forma 'a' daca urmeaza o consoana: a book = o carte
Are forma 'an' daca urmeaza o vocala: an english = un englez
Cand substantivul e la plural articolul nehotarat dispare: books = carti
Se foloseste inaintea substantivelor ce denumesc profesia, nationalitatea, genul persoanei:
I am an engineer = Sunt inginer
I am a romanian = Sunt roman
I am a man = Sunt barbat
I am a woman = Sunt femeie

Articolul hotarat (The Definite Article)
Articolul hotarat 'the' , se citeste zã, se aseaza inaintea substantivului:
the book = cartea , the books = cartile , book = carte , books = carti
the girl = fata , the girls = fetele , girl = fatã , girls = fete

Adjectivul (The Adjective)
Adjectivul se aseaza intre articol si substantiv: a good boy = un baiat bun

Adverbul (The Adverb)
Adverbul se formeaza adaugand la adjectiv terminatia ly:
bad weather = vreme rea , bad este adjectiv
the weather is badly = vremea este rea , badly este adverb

Pluralul substantivelor (The Plural of Nouns)
Pluralul se formeaza adaugand dupa singular litera 's' :
boy = baiat, boys = baieti
girl = fata, girls = fete

Substantive cu plural neregulat (The Irregular Plural of Nouns)
man = barbat , men = barbati
woman = femeie , women = femei
child = copil , children = copii
Exista unele substantive care se termina la plural in 'es'

Pronumele si adjectivul demonstrativ (Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives)
this = acesta, aceasta
that = acela, aceea
these = acestia, acestea
those = aceia, acelea

Cazul genitiv (The Genitive Case)
Exprima apartenenta, este de doua feluri: of sau 's
the book of the boy = cartea baiatului
the boy's book = cartea baiatului
In aceste exemple the boy inseamna "baiatul" , iar cu of si 's inseamna "baiatului"

Numeralul (The Numeral)
1 = one , 2 = two , 3 = three , 4 = four , 5 = five , 6 = six , 7 = seven , 8 = eight , 9 = nine , 10 = ten , 11 = eleven , 12 = twelve , 13 = thirteen , 14 = fourteen , 15 = fifteen , 16 = sixteen , 17 = seventeen , 18 = eighteen , 19 = nineteen , 20 = twenty , 21 = twenty-one , 22 = twenty-two , 30 = thirty , 40 = forty , 50 = fifty , 60 = sixty , 70 = seventy , 80 = eighty , 90 = ninety , 100 = one hundred , 733 = seven hundred and thirty-three , 1000 = one thousand , 1975 = one thousand nine hundred and seventy-five , 2004 = two thousand and four

Pronumele si adjectivele interogative (Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives)
who ? = cine ?
whose ? = a cui ?
whom ? = cui ? pe cine ?
which ? = care ?
what ? = ce ?

Prepozitii spatiale (Space Prepositions)
from = din , with = cu , in = in , on = pe , to = spre , out = afara , before = inainte , behind = inapoi , between = intre , across = peste ,
into = inauntru , out of = afara din , through = prin , over = peste , under = sub , up = sus , down = jos , inside = inauntru , outside = in afara

Pronume relative (Relative Pronouns)
Pentru persoane, animale, lucruri:
who = care
whose = al,a,ai,ale carui,carei,caror
whom = caruia, careia, carora
whom = pe cine, pe care
that = care
Pentru animale, lucruri:
which = care
what = ce

Pronumele personale (Personal Pronouns)
I = eu
you = tu
he = el , she = ea
it = el , ea , pentru obiecte sau animale
we = noi
you = voi
they = ei , ele

Adjective posesive (Possessive Adjectives)
my = meu, mea
your = tau, ta
his = lui , her = ei
its = lui , ei
our = nostru, noastra
your = vostru, voastra
their = lor

Pronume posesiv (Possessive Pronouns)
mine = al meu, a mea
yours = al tau, a ta
his = al lui , hers = al ei
ours = al nostru, a noastra
yours = al vostru, a voastra
theirs = al lor, a lor

Pronumele personale la cazul dativ (The Personal Pronouns at the Dative Case)
me = mie
you = tie
him = lui , her = ei
it = lui , ei
us = noua
you = voua
them = lor

Pronumele personale la cazul acuzativ (The Personal Pronouns at the Accusative Case)
me = pe mine
you = pe tine
him = pe el , her = pe ea
it = pe el , pe ea
us = pe noi
you = pe voi
them = pe ei

Pronumele reflexive si de intarire (Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns)
myself = insumi, insami
yourself =insuti, insati
himself = insusi , herself = insasi
itself = insusi , insasi
ourselves = insine
yourselves = insiva
themselves = insisi , insele

Prezentul verbului 'to be' (The Present of the Verb 'to be')
I am = eu sunt
you are = tu esti
he is = el este , she is = ea este
it is = el este , ea este
we are = noi suntem
you are = voi sunteti
they are = ei sunt , ele sunt
Se poate folosi prescurtat: I'm , he's , she's, it's
Pentru negativ se adauga 'not': I am not = eu nu sunt
Pentru intrebari cuvintele se scriu invers: Are you ? = Tu esti ?

Prezentul verbului 'to have' (The Present of the Verb 'to have')
I have = eu am
you have = tu ai
he has = el are , she has = ea are
it has = el are, ea are
we have = noi avem
you have = voi aveti
they have = ei au, ele au
Pentru negativ se adauga 'not': I have not = eu nu am
Pentru intrebari cuvintele se scriu invers: Have you ? = Tu ai ?

Trecutul verbului 'to be' (The Past of the Verb 'to be')
I was = eu am fost
you were = tu ai fost
he was = el a fost , she was = ea a fost
it was = el a fost, ea a fost
we were = noi am fost
you were = voi ati fost
they were = ei , ele au fost
Negativ: I was not = eu nu am fost
Interogativ: Were you ? = Tu ai fost ?

Trecutul verbului 'to have' (The Past of the Verb 'to have')
I had = eu am avut
you had = tu ai avut
he had = el a avut , she had = ea a avut
it had = el , ea a avut
we had = noi am avut
you had = voi ati avut
they had = ei au , ele au avut
Negativ: I had not = eu nu am avut
Interogativ: Had you ? = Tu ai avut ?

Participiul nedefinit (The Indefinite Participle)
Se formeaza adaugand terminatia -ing la infinitivul verbului
to learn = a invata , learning = invatand
to play = a juca , playing = jucand
to try = a incerca , trying = incercand
Exemple de modificari la unele verbe:
to translate = a traduce , translating = traducand
to lye = a zacea , lying = zacand
to sit = a sta , sitting = stand
to preffer = a prefera , preferring = preferand
to travel = a calatori , travelling = calatorind

Participiul trecut (The Past Participle)
La verbele regulate participiul trecut se formeaza adaugand terminatia -ed la infinitivul verbului
to ask = a intreba , asked = intrebat
to play = a juca , played = jucat
Exemple de modificari la unele verbe:
to translate = a traduce , translated = tradus
to stop = a opri , stopped = oprit
to prefer = a prefera , preferred = preferat
to travel = a calatori , travelled = calatorit
to try = a incerca , tried = incercat
La verbele neregulate participiul trecut este forma a III-a a verbului.
to write (forma I) = a scrie, written (forma III) = scris

Timpul verbelor neregulate
prezent (forma I) = trecut (forma II) = participiu trecut (forma III)
be = was = been => fi = fost = fost
have = had = had => avea = avut = avut
become = became = become => deveni = devenit = devenit
begin = began = begun => incepe = inceput = inceput
bring = brought = brought => aduce = adus = adus
buy = bought = bought => cumpara = cumparat = cumparat
come = came = come => veni = venit = venit
cost = costy = cost => costa = cost = cost
choose = chose = chosen => alege = ales = ales
do = did = done => face = facut = facut
drive = drove = driven => conduce = condus = condus
eat = ate = eaten => manca = mancat = mancat
feel = felt = felt => simti = simtit = simtit
find = found = found => gasi = gasit = gasit
forget = forgot = forgotten => uita = uitat = uitat
freeze = froze = frozen => ingheta = inghetat = inghetat
get = got = got => lua = luat = luat
give = gave = given => da = dat = dat
go = went = gone => merge = mers = mers / se duce = dus = dus
grow = grew = grown => creste = crescut = crescut
hear = heard = heard => auzi = auzit = auzit
hold = held = held => tine = tinut = tinut
keep = kept = kept => pastra = pastrat = pastrat
know = knew = known => cunoaste = cunoscut = cunoscut / sti = stiut = stiut
lead = led = led => conduce = condus = condus
learn = learnt = learnt => invata = invatat = invatat
leave = left = left => parasi = parasit = parasit
lose = lost = lost => pierde = pierdut = pierdut
make = made = made => face = facut = facut
mean = meant = meant => insemna = insemnat = insemnat / intelege = inteles = inteles
meet = met = met => intalni = intalnit = intalnit
pay = paid = paid => plati = platit = platit
put = put = put => pune = pus = pus
run = ran = run => alerga = alergat = alergat
say = said = said => spune = spus = spus
see = saw = seen => vedea = vazut = vazut
sell = sold = sold => vinde = vandut = vandut
send = sent = sent => trimite = trimis = trimis
set = set = set => stabili = stabilit = stabilit
show = showed = shown => arata = aratat = aratat
spend = spent = spent => chetui = cheltuit = cheltuit / petrece = petrecut = petrecut
speak = spoke = spoken => spune = spus = spus / vorbi = vorbit = vorbit
stand = stood = stood => sta = stat = stat
take = took = taken => lua = luat = luat
tell = told = told => spune = spus = spus
think = thought = thought => gandi = gandit = gandit
understand = understood = understood => intelege = inteles = inteles
win = won = won => castiga = castigat = castigat
write = wrote = written => scrie = scris = scris

Prezentul, aspectul comun (The Present, Common Aspect)
I write = eu scriu
you write = tu scrii
he writes = el scrie , she writes = ea scrie
it writes = el scrie, ea scrie
we write = noi scriem
you write = voi scrieti
they write = ei scriu, ele scriu
Negativ: I do not write = eu nu scriu , he does not write = el nu scrie
Interogativ: Do you write ? = Tu scrii ?
La he , she , it , se adauga terminatia s
Exemple de modificari la unele verbe:
to watch = a urmari , he watches = el urmareste
to dress = a se imbraca , he dresses = el se imbraca
to go = a merge , he goes = el merge
to wash = a spala , he washes = el spala

Prezentul, aspectul continuu (The Present, Continuous Aspect)
I am writing = eu scriu
you are writing = tu scrii
he is writing = el scrie , she is writing = ea scrie
it is writing = el scrie, ea scrie
we are writing = noi scriem
you are writing = voi scrieti
they are writing = ei scriu , ele scriu
Negativ: I am not writing = eu nu scriu , he is not writing = el nu scrie
Interogativ: Am I working ? = Tu scrii ?
Se foloseste pentru a exprima o actiune in curs de desfasurare in momentul de fata sau o actiune care urmeaza sa aiba loc intr-un viitor foarte apropiat

Prezentul perfect, aspectul comun (The Present Perfect, Common Aspect)
I have written = eu am scris
you have written = tu ai scris
he has written = el a scris , she has written = ea a scris
it has written = el a scris , ea a scris
we have written = noi am scris
you have written = tu ai scris
they have written = ei au scris, ele au scris
Negativ: I have not written = eu nu am scris
Interogativ: Have you written ? = Tu ai scris?
Se foloseste pentru o actiune terminata in trecut dar care are consecinte si in prezent:
We have moved into a new house = Ne-am mutat intr-o casa noua.
(Ne-am mutat in trecut, dar in prezent locuim in aceasta casa)
Se foloseste atunci cand propozitia contine: today, this week, this month, this year, ever, never, often, seldom, already, lately, just, always, yet.
I have been a student for several month = Eu sunt student de cateva luni.

Presentul perfect, aspectul continuu (The Present Perfect, Continuous Aspect)
I have been writing = eu am scris , eu scriu
you have been writing = tu ai scris , tu scrii
he has been writing = el a scris , el scrie , she has been writing = ea a scris , ea scrie
it has been writing = el a scris , el scrie , ea a scris , ea scrie
we have been writing = noi am scris , noi scriem
you have been writing = voi ati scris , voi scrieti
they have been writing = ei au scris , ei scriu , ele au scris , ele scriu
Se foloseste pentru o actiune care a inceput in trecut, si s-a incheiat cu putin inainte de momentul vorbirii sau este in curs de desfasurare si poate continua si in viitor.
I have been writing since 7 o'clock . Eu scriu de la ora 7.
Negativ: I have not been writing = eu nu am scris, eu nu scriu
Interogativ: = Have you been writing ? = Tu ai scris ? Tu scrii ?

Trecutul, aspectul comun (The Past, Common Aspect)
Verbe regulate:
Exemplu: to ask = a intreba
ask (forma I) = asked (forma II) = asked (forma III)
ask = prezent , asked = trecut , asked = participiul trecut
intreb = am intrebat = intrebat Este la fel ca participiul trecut, se adauga terminatia 'ed' la infinitivul verbului
I asked = eu am intrebat
you asked = tu ai intrebat
he asked = el a intrebat , she asked = ea a intrebat
it asked = el a intrebat, ea a intrebat
we asked = noi am intrebat
you asked = voi ati intrebat
they asked = ei , ele au intrebat
Verbe neregulate:
Exemplu: to write = a scrie
write (forma I) = wrote (forma II) = written (forma III)
write = prezent , wrote = trecut , written = participiul trecut
scriu = am scris = scris I wrote = eu am scris
you wrote = tu ai scris
he wrote = el a scris , she wrote = ea a scris
it wrote = ea a scris , ea a scris
we wrote = noi am scris
you wrote = voi ati scris
they wrote = ei au scris , ele au scris
Negativ: I did not write = eu nu am scris
Interogativ: Did you write ? = Tu ai scris ?

Trecutul, aspectul continuu (The Past, Continuous Aspect)
I was writing = eu scriam
you were writing = tu scriai
he was writing = el scria , she was writing = ea scria
it was writing = el scria , ea scria
we were writing = noi scriam
you were writing = voi scriati
they were writing = ei scriau, ele scriau
Negativ: I was not writing = eu nu scriam
Interogativ: Were you writing ? = Tu scriai ?

Trecutul perfect, aspectul comun / Mai mult ca perfectul (The Past Perfect, Common Aspect)
I had written = eu scrisesem
you had written = tu scrisesei
he had written = el scrisese , she had written = ea scrisese
it had written = el scrisese , ea scrisese
we had written = noi scrisesem
you had written = voi scriseseti
they had written = ei scrisesera , ele scrisesera
Negativ: I had not written = eu nu scrisesem
Interogativ: Had you written ? = Tu scrisesei ?

Trecutul perfect, aspectul continuu / Mai mult ca perfectul (The Past Perfect, Continuous Aspect)
I had been writing = eu scrisesem
you had been writing = tu scrisesei
he had been writing = el scrisese , she had been writing = ea scrisese
it had been writing = el scrisese , ea scrisese we had been writing = noi scrisesem
you had been writing = voi scriseseti
they had been writing = ei , ele scrisesera
Negativ: I had not been writing = eu nu scrisesem
Interogativ: Had you been writing ? = Tu scrisesei ?

Viitorul, aspectul comun (The Future, Common Aspect)
I shall write = eu voi scrie
you will write = tu vei scrie
he will write = el va scrie , she will write = ea va scrie
it will write = el va scrie , ea va scrie
we shall write = noi vom scrie
you will write = voi veti scrie
they will write = ei , ele vor scrie
Negativ: I shall not write = eu nu voi scrie
Interogativ: Will you write ? = Tu vei scrie ?
Forme scurte: - in loc de shall si will se poate scrie prescurtat 'll - in loc de shall not se poate scrie prescurtat shan't , in loc de will not se poate scrie won't

Viitorul, aspectul continuu (The Future, Continuous Aspect)
I shall be writing = eu voi scrie
you will be writing = tu vei scrie
he will be writing = el va scrie , she will be writing = ea va scrie
it will be writing = el va scrie , ea va scrie
we shall be writing = noi vom scrie
you will be writing = voi veti scrie
they will be writing = ei , ele vor scrie
Negativ: I shall not be writing = eu nu voi scrie
Interogativ: Will you be writing ? = Tu vei scrie ?

Viitorul perfect (The Future Perfect)
I shall have written = eu voi fi scris
you will have written = tu vei fi scris
he will have written = el va fi scris , she will have written = ea va fi scris
it will have written = el va fi scris , ea va fi scris
we shall have written = noi vom fi scris
you will have written = voi veti fi scris
they will have written = ei , ele vor fi scris
Negativ: I shall not have written = eu nu voi fi scris
Interogativ: Will you have written ? = Tu vei fi scris ?

Conditionalul prezent (The Present Conditional)
I should write = eu as scrie
you would write = tu ai scrie
he would write = el ar scrie , she would write = ea ar scrie
it would write = el ar scrie , ea ar scrie
we should write = noi am scrie
you would write = voi ati scrie
they would write = ei , ele ar scrie
Negativ: I should not write = eu nu as scrie
Interogativ: Would you write ? = Tu ai scrie ?

Conditionalul trecut (The Past Conditional)
I should have written = eu as fi scris
you would have written = tu ai fi scris
he would have written = el ar fi scris , she would have written = ea ar fi scris
it would have written = el ar fi scris , ea ar fi scris
we should have written = noi am fi scris
you would have written = voi ati fi scris
they would have written = ei , ele ar fi scris
Negativ: I should not have written = eu nu as fi scris
Interogativ: Would you have written ? = Tu ai fi scris ?

Verbe modale: can must may
can = pot, sunt in stare
may = pot, am voie
must = trebuie
Verbul care le urmeaza sunt la infinitiv fara 'to' : I can write = Eu pot scrie
Sunt la fel pentru: eu, tu, el, ea, noi, voi, ei
Negativ: cannot , may not, must not, sau: can't, mayn't, mustn't
Interogativ: Can you write ? = Poti scrie ?

Verbe modale: will shall would should
will
I will = eu intentionez, eu sunt hotarat
we will = noi intentionam, noi suntem hotarati
shall
you shall = tu trebuie , iti promit
he , she , it , shall = el , ea trebuie , ii promit
you shall = voi trebuie , va promit
they shall = ei , ele trebuie , le promit
should
you should = tu ar trebui
he , she, it , should = el , ea ar trebui
you should = voi ar trebui
they should = ei , ele ar trebui
would
you would = vrei te rog
you would = vreti va rog

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